The Meaning of Hebrew In Luganda

The Meaning of Hebrew In Luganda

The Banyankole’s oral history narrates that they are the descendants of the Bachwezi, or Banyamwezi (people of the moon) who were Egyptians fleeing from Kemet (ancient Egypt), which was in turmoil. This was during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) of the 18th dynasty (1,570-1,293 BC). The first group of Bachwezi who descended on the Great Lakes Region settled in western Uganda among of Ankole (Mbarara District) in 1,350 BC.

The Bachwezi were rulers, physicians, sages and sorcerers, who had superior skills in construction, healing, government and cultivation, which they introduced to the Bantu-speaking people they found south of River Nile. They taught these people astronomy, architecture, agriculture, magic, physics, chemistry, navigation, mathematics, games, the alphabet and the Egyptian calendar.

These Bantu people called the Egyptians the Bachwezi because they worshipped the sun and the moon. The moon is called mwezi in Luganda. Oral Bantu history claims that the Bachwezi were gods who could perform miracles. The Baganda of Uganda called the Bachwezi, the Abaswezi, whom they now call the Abasezi due to their magical powers.

The Bachwezi called all people they found upon their descent ‘Bairu’; a derogatory term meaning slaves. The Bahima, a clan of the Banyankole, consider themselves to be the upper or ruling class of Ankole and the descendants of the Bachwezi.

The names Bahuma, Bahima and Bahema are used indiscriminately by many authors. It is thought that the Bahuma came to Uganda from the north-east but passed west of Lake Albert and entered the region between the great lakes from the west, penetrating into Bunyoro-Kitara from the south. The name Bahuma comes from the verb okuhuma which literally means the cacophony of sound made by a herd of cattle on the move, lowing, thudding of hooves and cries of herdsmen. The Bahuma signify the original invaders; the Bahima are their descendants of mixed parentage because okuluma means to become dark or coarse. The Bahema were the people who settled west of Lake Albert. At the present time the Banyoro call the pastoralists or their descendants Bahuma and the people farther south call them Bahima. The name Bahima is most commonly used to describe the cattle-keeping peoples.1

The Bahima regard the other clans of Ankole who make up more than 90% of Ankole’s population to be lower classes, who they refer to as “abiru”. The word ‘“abiru” is similar to ancient Egypt’s ‘Apiru’ or ‘Habiru’ in both pronunciation and meaning.

The equivalent of “abiru” in Luganda is “abadu”, which means servants or slaves. The Hebrew word for servants or slaves is “āḇaḏ,” similar in meaning, vocalisation and transliteration to its Luganda counterpart “abadu”.

Strong’s Hebrew concordance (Strong’s H5647) translates the Hebrew word for servant as ʿāḇaḏ.

Strong’s H5647 – ʿāḇaḏ, ʻâbad, aw-bad’; a primitive root; to work (in any sense); by implication, to serve, till, (causatively) enslave, etc.:— be, keep in bondage, be bondmen, bond-service, compel, do, dress, ear, execute, husbandman, keep, labour(-ing man, bring to pass, (cause to, make to) serve(-ing, self), (be, become) servant(-s), do (use) service, till(-er), transgress (from margin), (set a) work, be wrought, worshipper,

Strong’s H5650 – ʿeḇeḏ , ʻebed, eh’-bed; from H5647; a servant:— bondage, bondman, (bond-) servant, (man-) servant.

The etymology of “abiru” or “abairu” suggests that the word means foreigner. It has a prefix “aba,” and a root word “iru.” “Aba,” meaning “people from” and “iru” meaning “outside.” Bairu are the outsiders.

In Luganda, outside of home is “bweru”, from the prefix “bwe” and the root “ru”. “Bwe” means to be and “ru” most probably derives from the sounds associated with dangerous animals outside the safety of home such as growling leopards and lions that go “rrrrruuu”.

The word for the colour white is “njeru”. Because white is “njeru”,white people are called “aberu”, meaning white people.

Similarly, a banana is “lyenvu” while the colour yellow is “kyenvu”, a banana leaf is “lulagala” while the colour green is “kilagala” and medicine is “dagala” because medicinal herbs are green.

The Hebrew word translated as ‘Hebrew’ is ‘`Ibriy’ does not differ much in meaning, vocalisation and transliteration from its Luganda counterpart “ebweru” meaning outside or foreign or ‘ab ebweru’ meaning ‘the outsiders’. The prefix ‘aba’ means ‘they’ and ‘bweru’ means ‘outside’. Hebrews were therefore the ‘aba ebweru’ meaning ‘the outsiders’.

‘`Ibriy’ derives from the word “`eber”, which means “a region across, … beyond, by, from, over”.

Strong’s H5680 – `Ibriy, ʻIbrîy, ib-ree’; patronymic from H5677; an Eberite (i.e. Hebrew) or descendant of Eber:—Hebrew(-ess, woman).

Strong’s H5677 – `Eber, ʻÊbêr, ay’-ber; the same as H5676; Eber, the name of two patriarchs and four Israelites:—Eber, Heber.

Strong’s H5676 – `eber, ʻêber, ay’-ber; from H5674; properly, a region across; but used only adverbially (with or without a preposition) on the opposite side (especially of the Jordan; ususally meaning the east):—against, beyond, by, from, over, passage, quarter, (other, this) side, straight.

It is probable that the word “abiru” derives from the word “ebweru”, since slaves were generally people of foreign origin. The Hebrew word ‘`Ibriy’ translated as ‘Hebrew’ does not differ in meaning, vocalisation or transliteration from its Luganda counterpart “ebweru” which means ‘outside’ or ‘foreign’, (a contracted form of ‘ab ebweru’ meaning ‘the outsiders’) or from‘ebali’ which means ‘on the side’. The prefix ‘aba’ means ‘they’ and ‘bweru’ means ‘outside’. Hebrews were therefore the ‘aba ebweru’ or ‘aba ebali’ meaning ‘the outsiders’. 2

Ancient Egyptian was a Bantu language

Contrary to the common misconception that the Ancient Egyptian spoke a semitic language, the root language of ancient Hebrew is Bantu languages. Native Bantu speakers can rewind the linguistic clock to the ancient language of Moses, and prove that Bantu languages are the root language of Biblical Hebrew.

Connections between Hebrew, Ancient Egyptian and Bantu languages have gone largely unnoticed because the colonialist forced the European alphabet on Africans. Bantu languages are spoken with unique intonations, inflections and accents that are not expressed in the European alphabet, and yet Bantu speakers must communicate within the rigid constraints of their colonial masters’ alphabets. Fortunately, despite his best efforts, the colonialist was unsuccessful in completely preventing Bantu languages from being spoken and so they remain intact.

An example is the letter nga which we saw in section ii) why Luganda. Since the letter does not appear on standard typewriters or computer keyboards, it is often replaced by the combination ng’.

The anthropologist Sir Alan Gardner disputes the commonly held opinion that the Ancient Egyptians spoke a semitic language. Rather, he concludes that the root language of the Ancient Egyptian language is Bantu languages.

Despite resemblances with Semitic languages, Ancient Egyptian differs from all the Semitic tongues a good deal more than any one differs from each other, and at least until its relationship to the African languages is more closely defined, Ancient Egyptian must certainly be classified as standing outside the Semitic group.” 3

Arabic language and culture were not a part of ancient Egypt during any part of the 3,000 years of dynastic Egypt until Arabs invaded and conquered Egypt during the 7th century. Fergus Sharman proves that the ancient Egyptian language stands outside the Semitic group and that its status may be found in other African languages. He illustrates substantial resemblances in lexical terms to demonstrate that the core vocabulary of the Ancient Egyptian language lies within the Bantu family of languages.

Ancient Egyptian words for the eye, seeing, the sun, fire, heat, animal terms, body parts, words for trees, water, names for rivers, lakes, canals, stars, and other important words such as the word for a person defined as MTU have all been verified, tabulated, and tabulated to give a good fit in lexical terms with Bantu languages. Other words include terms for ‘to know’ and therefore to have knowledge and understanding. 4

Fergus Sharman5 details numerous examples to prove that despite a time-span of seven thousand years or more, there is a remarkable degree of similarity between the hieroglyphics of the Ancient Egyptian language and present-Bantu languages. For example, woman, mother and wife in hieroglyphics is KA-T, or KA-T, which is similar in many Bantu languages. Luganda – Mu ka/Mu kazi, Lusoga – Mu kadi, Zulu – Um ka, KiSolozi – Mu ka ti, Onshindonga – Omu ka dhi, KiTsonga – N sa ti, Southern Soto Bantu – Mo sa di, KiSesuto Bantu – Mo sa li, KiTsonga – Wa n sa ti, KiSiswati – Omsi ka ti.

He goes on to give several examples of words that show linguistic connections between the Bantu and Ancient Egyptian languages. He insists that the Ancient Egyptian language has a considerable number of terms of demonstrably Bantu origin, although their exact source within the Bantu domain has never been properly identified. He gives examples of generic Bantu words for animals which the Ancient Egyptians incorporated into their vocabulary such as words for cow, ox or bull.

Fergus Sherman 6 cites the common features between ancient Egyptian and Bantu languages. He advises that

When comparisonsare made between languages which are supposedlygenetically related one must look for a good number of words which giveclear sound/meaning relationships. If pairing of items of basic vocabulary arepossible to find between the languages, then it may be assumed that there is abinding genetic relationship between the languages considered. The morepairings of similar sound/meanings words which can be identified betweenlanguages, the greater is the likelihood that the languages are related.”

He goes on to cite several examples of words that show linguistic connections between the Bantu and Ancient Egyptian languages, insisting that the Ancient Egyptian language has a considerable number of terms of demonstrably Bantu origin, although their exact source within the Bantu domain has never been properly identified. He gives examples of generic Bantu words for animals which the Ancient Egyptians incorporated into their vocabulary such as words for cow, ox or bull.

According to linguists, stable vocabularies between languages consist of items which do not exhibit much change over time and these might include a possible collection of the following words:

  1. Words for small numbers, one, two
  2. Terms used for parts of the body such as throat, arm, leg, hand, eye, nose,

ear, mouth

  1. Universal environmental terms such as words used for sun, moon, water,


  1. Verbs referring to basic life functions which may consist of the following

words: die, eat, drink, and smell

Depending on geographical locations terms of words may include the following such as cow, snake, dog, cat, mouse, rat, elephant, duck, goat, bovine or domestic animals grouped as a herd which include sheep, goat or ox.7

Below are some examples of the similarities between Ancient Egyptian and Luganda.

Ancient Egyptian Meaning Hieroglyphics Luganda

Asthma/Breathlessness KHM-NFW Kema/Nfuwa – Breathless Blowing

Balance MKHAT Makati – Middle

Branch of a Tree/Twig KHT Kati – Small Tree/Twig

Bread/Dough KHAT Nkota – Matooke

Burn/Blaze MWKHA Mwaka – Burning/Ablaze

Cat MIW Miyayu – Undomesticated cat

Chief/Prince MS Muzeyi – Elder

Child/Babe NKHN KaanaLittle Child

Child/Little One KTT Kato/Katoototo – Young/Little One

Close/Enclose SBK Sibako – Pack Up

Cut to Pieces/Engrave KHTKHT Kutulakutula – Cut up

Cut/Scrape/Carve TMTM Tematema – Chop Up

Dog IW Mbwa – Dog/The one who says Wa

Door SBA Siba/Ziba – Close/Block/Lock/Tie Up

Dry KM Kama – To Milk Dry

Embrace/Contain/Hold SKHN Sikana, Sikasikana, Sikina – Grab/Moan

End KM Koma/Komo/Komya – End

External Manifestation/Soul BA Ba – To Be/Become/Exist

Eyeball BNN Bona/Bonna – To see/Pearl

Fat KNN Kinene – Fat

Foetus MAY Maji – Eggs/Ovaries

Head Attire/Crown KHA-T Nkata – Head Pad Mount

Hold/Grasp SKH Sika – Pull

Hot SHM Camuka/Camula/Camusa


Illuminate BKH Buka – Wake up/Surface

Know/Understand AM Amanyi – He/She Knows

Living ANKH Anaka – He/She Will Come Down

Man/Male MTU Muntu – Person

Name RN Linya – Name

Moment/Time HA-T Kati – Now

Nurse a Child RR Lera – Nurse a Child

Papyrus QMA Nkoma – Papyrus Plant

Papyrus Nilotica KM Nkoma/Kikomera


Remain/Sit/Continue KAA Ka – Relax/Homestead

Repose/Sleep NM Nama – Repose/Sleep

Serpent NIK Njoka – Worms

Servant/Peasant/Dependent MR Mwora – Dependent

Shrine/Sanctuary KHM Kkomera/Koma –Fence/Prison

Skins/Human Beings INMW Enyama – Flesh

Smell NHA Nuuka – Smell

Staff TI Kati – Stick

The Two Lands of Egypt TAWY Tabi – Branch

Thing KH-T Kintu – Thing

United Lands of Egypt SMA-TAWI Sima tabi – Not Branches/Not Divided

Woman KA-T Mkazi/Nkazi/Mka


The entire body of knowledge we now know as Biblical Hebrew, the Hebrew Bible, together with its sister Greek philosophy, were stolen from the Bantu people of Ancient Egypt.

A key component discovered in the Ancient Egyptian language is that it is an agglutinating language, similar to Bantu languages. Moreover, the Ancient language uses prefixes and suffixes attached to roots of verbs in similar ways to Bantu languages. The Afroasiatic languages which include Semitic languages such as Arabis are not agglutinating languages and do not generally use prefixes or suffixes. They do not fit the model. Writing and laying down identifiable glyphs as morphemes on stone reflect the nature of an agglutinating language, in which morphemes are generally glued together to produce desired word forms. This is true in relation to the ancient Egyptian language. The understanding of agglutination in the Ancient Egyptian language made it possible for me to determine and check roots of words which would otherwise not have been discovered.8

After nearly five thousand years of prohibition by Ancient Egyptians against the Greeks, they were finally permitted to enter Egypt for the purpose of their education. The Greeks received instructions directly from the Egyptian Priests, and learnt as much as they could about Egyptian culture. However, after the invasion by Alexander the Great, the Sacred temples and libraries were plundered and pillaged, and Aristotle’s school converted the library at Alexandria into a research center.

The Drama of Greek Philosophy

(1) This consists of three actors (a) Alexander the Great who invaded Egypt and plundered the Royal Library at Alexandria (b) Aristotle and the alumni of his school, who took possession of the Royal Library and having first carried off large quantities of scientific books, subsequently converted it into a research Centre and University. (c) The Roman government, which through the edicts of Emperors Theodosius and Justinian closed down the Egyptian Mysteries together with its schools, the University of the Ancient World and System of the African Culture.

(2) The result of this was (a) the misrepresentation and erroneous opinion that the African continent and people are backward in culture and have made no contribution to civilization and (b) the establishment of Christianity as a rival against the Mysteries or African System of Culture, in order to perpetuate this erroneous opinion.9

Characteristics of Luganda10

The Luganda language has five vowel (emperezi) sounds which are represented in the five alphabetical symbols:

a, (as in attempt)

e, (as in employ)

i, (as in import)

o, (as in only)

u, (as in blue)

Luganda vowel sounds can be either short or long. In general, the short sound is represented by a single vowel while the long sound is represented by double vowels.

‘a’ in bana (four) vs baana (children). The ‘a’ is short in bana but long in baana.

‘e’ in sera (dance the dance of the wizards) vs seera (overcharge). The ‘e’ is short in sera but long in seera.

‘i’ in sika (pull) vs siika (fry). The ‘i’ is short in sika but long in siika.

‘o’ in kola (work or do) vs koola (weed, ‘verb’). The ‘o’ is short in kola but long in koola.

‘u’ in tuma (send) vs tuuma (name, ‘verb’). The ‘u’ is short in tuma but long in tuuma.

Changing the length of the vowel sound also changes the meaning of the word as the above examples illustrate.

The ‘ny’ combination is a special case considered to be a single consonant. The ‘ng’ combination can sometimes represent a single consonant. M, n, ny and ng’ sounds are called nakinyinyindwa, while w and y are called nampawengwa.

Luganda consonant (ensirifu) sounds can be classified into four main categories; the stop sounds, fricative sounds, nasal sounds and the lateral or trill and flap sounds.

Stop Sounds (the sound is short and abrupt)

‘bb’ occurs bilabial (voiced)

‘p’ is also bilabial (whispered)

‘m’ bilabial (We shall meet this again in the nasal section)

‘d’ occurs at alveolar (voiced)

‘t’ is also alveolar (whispered)

‘g’ occurs at velar (voiced)

‘k’ is also velar (whispered)

Fricative sounds (some air emitted out of the mouth at utterance)

‘h’ is glottal (voiced)

‘b’ is bilabial as we have seen above

‘v’ occurs at labio-dental (voiced)

‘f’ is also labio-dental (whispered)

‘z’ is alveolar (voiced)

‘s’ is also alveolar (whispered)

‘c’, ‘ky’ (kyapa), and ‘ki’ (kibira) is palatal (whispered)

‘j’ and ‘gy’ are also palatal (voiced)

Nasal sound (the nose is involved in creating the sound)

‘m’ bilabial (voiced)

‘n’ alveolar (voiced)

‘ny’ palatal (voiced)

‘mb’ and ‘mp’ bilabial

‘n + any consonant’ will produce a nasal sound of its related symbol.

‘ng” as in ng’aali. (word processor inability)

Lateral/Trill/Flap Sound (the tongue seems to lateral)

‘L’ and ‘r’ both occur at the alveolar In Luganda, the letter combination ny is treated as a unique consonant.

Some letters are interchangeable in Bantu languages and similar words may have similar phonology but different meanings depending on intonation. Examples are: Ekijja can mean burial ground or something burning, ekija is something that is coming while ekijja is something new.

Bantu words might seem to differ in different languages, yet they actually have the same root, phonetics and meaning. Depending on the dialect, all vowels are interchangeable. Many consonants are also interchangeable; k with q, ch and sh with s or ky, y with j, ny with nn, nga with nn or nna, z with s and z and s with x.

An example is the word Bantu – they are bantu in Kikongo and Kituba; watu in Swahili; anthu in Chichewa; batu in Lingala; bato in Kiluba; bato in Duala; abanto in Gusii; andu in Kamba and Kikuyu; abantu in Kirundi, Zulu, Xhosa, Runyakitara, and Ganda; wandru in Shingazidja; abantru in Mpondo and Ndebele; bãthfu in Phuthi; bantfu in Swati and Bhaca ; banu in Lala; vanhu in Shona and Tsonga; batho in Sesotho, Tswana and Northern Sotho; antu in Meru; andu in Embu; vandu in some Luhya dialects; vhathu in Venda and bhandu in Nyakyusa.11

A few other examples are in the table below.

GiveNatanN.atonaKu.tonaKu.tona, kutoneire
SmallQatanKatonoKakyeKatono, Katidi, Kadhiidi
ShameBuwshBuswavuOku.swaraKu.swala, o.sweire
TreeEtsEtti, o.mutiO.mutiO.muti, o.mubba
WaterMayimMazziMiizi, MiziMaadi

The best example of this trait is evidenced in the word for chicken.

In Luganda and other languages of Uganda and the Victoria Nyanza, and also in Runyoro on the Victoria Nile, the word for “fowl” is enkoko. In Ki-Swahili of Zanzibar it is kuku. In Zulu it is inkuku. In some of the Cameroon languages it is lokoko, ngoko, ngok, and on the Congo it is nkogo, nsusu. On the Zambezi it is nkuku; so also throughout the tribes of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, and most dialects of South Africa.”12

The Bantu, moreover, remained faithful to a great number of roots like “fowl,” which referred to animals, plants, implements and abstract concepts known to them in their original home. Thus there are the root-words for ox (-ñombe, -ombe, -nte), goat (-budi, -buzi, -buri), pig (- guluba), pigeon (-jiba), buffalo (nyati), dog (mbwa), hippopotamus (-bugu, gubu), elephant (-jobo, -joko), leopard (ngwi), house (-zo, – do, -yumba, -anda, -dago, -dabo), moon (-ezi), sun, sky, or God (- juba), water (-ndi, -ndiba, mandiba), lake or river (-anza),[4] drum (ngoma), name (-ina or jina), wizard (nganga), belly, bowel (-vu, – vumo), buttocks (-tako); adjectives like -bi (bad), -eru (white); the numerals, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 and 100; verbs like fwa (to die), ta (to strike, kill), la (da) or lia (di, dia) (to eat). The root-words cited are not a hundredth part of the total number of root-words which are practically common to all the spoken dialects of Bantu Africa.13

Bantu languages have the following peculiar features;

  1. They are agglutinative in their construction, with variations in meaning formed by adding prefixes and suffixes to root words.
  1. Bantu root words are practically unchanging, except for modifications in pronunciation.
  1. All Bantu words must end with a vowel.
  1. Substantives or nominal words that functions as nouns are divided into classes or genders, which are indicated by the pronominal particle prefixed to the root. For example, in Luganda, se and is masculine while na is feminine. Balongo means twins and so salongo is the father of twins while nalongo is the mother of twins.
  1. Roots verbs form the second person singular of the imperative. In Luganda, gwe means you, and gamba means say. In English the words you say, do not translate as gwe gamba, but simply as ggamba without the gwe which means you.
  1. Bantu languages have been called ‘sexless’14 because their pronouns do not indicate sexual gender. Pronouns generally refer to all human beings and there is no he/she or him/her. He/she eats is alya andhe/she ate is yalya, a is the prefix which is neither masculine nor feminine and lya is the root meaning to eat. These pronouns are used only in refence to human beings such that in the case of an animal the word becomes elya with the pronoun e. The exception to this rule is prefixes that indicate gender with male or female prefixes suffixes which are usually identical in meaning with the word. In Luganda, nyabo means lady – it has the feminine prefix na or nya associated with the root meaning mother. Sebo means gentleman – ithas the masculine prefix se from sajja associated with the root meaning man.

These peculiarities and differences in spelling/pronunciation would inevitably be passed on to the Bantu derived Hebrew language as well.

All Laguages Originated In Africa

If DNA is the carrier of our genetic information, what is the DNA of our languages?

Human language is like a giant tree whose seed first sprouted in Africa. Like human DNA, language sprung from Africa and did not evolve independently in different regions of the world as some linguist believe. Linguistic evidence from African languages proves that all African words can be traced to their ultimate beginning as we have seen from the word Bantu and the word Hebrew. This is impossible with languages outside of Africa.

According to a study done by Dr. Quentin Atkinson, every language in the world evolved from a prehistoric African mother tongue tens of thousands of years ago.

By applying mathematical methods, Atkinson studied more than 500 world languages and discovered that just like the established pattern of genetic diversity in humans which reduces the farther humans travelled from Africa, phonemes reduced the farther humans travelled from Africa. While some African languages have more than 100 phonemes as a base, the English language only has around 45 and Hawaii which is even further on the migration route has only 13 phonemes. Phonemes are the consonants, vowels and tones which make up language.

Atkinson’s findings measure up to fossil and DNA evidence that supports the “out of Africa” theory. The theory states that all modern humans originated in Africa from where they spread to the rest of the world.

Luganda words have more phonemes than their Hebrew counterparts which are similar in meaning, vocalisation and transliteration as we have seen from the word Bantu and the word Hebrew.

This new aspect of the ancient Egyptian language has never been previously studied. Mitochondrial DNA evidence by Bryan Sykes has shown that modern human beings originated in central/southern Africa and spread across the rest of Africa and along the Arabian peninsula carrying and diffusing language. Only at a later stage did modern human beings spread north into Egypt and the process of carrying and spreading language was repeated. The human migration out of Africa carried with it fundamental concepts pf words, ideas and language which permeated the entire length and breadth of the world. Without a proper realization and understanding of this important factor, linguists have not given enough thought to the ancient role developed by early human ancestors as they over flowed from their original homeland in east Africa. 15

The antiquity of words and their meanings spread from Africa to the rest of the world but their roots have been blurred and eroded mainly because Africa’s impact on the world’s languages has been overlooked. A lot of the world’s history is to be found in African linguistics, if we studied them with half the zeal we devote to European or Asian languages. Linguistic and Linguistic scholars need to let go of their preconceived biases and engage with Bantu languages to trace the roots of human languages, all of which originated from Bantu languages.

1 A. R. Dunbar, A history of Bunyoro Kitara, 1965, p 20.

2 The letters ‘r’ and ‘l’ in Luganda are only distinguishable in written form but they are phonetically the same.The ‘r’ sound does not exist in Luganda.

3 Sir Alan Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar, 1927, Section 3, 3 quoted by Fergus Sharman, Linguistic Ties between Ancient Egyptian and Bantu: Uncovering Symbiotic Affinities and Relationships in Vocabulary, Preface, ix.

4 Fergus Sharman, Linguistic Ties between Ancient Egyptian and Bantu: Uncovering Symbiotic Affinities and Relationships in Vocabulary, Preface, x.

5 Fergus Sharman, Linguistic Ties.

6 Fergus Sharman, Linguistic Ties between Ancient Egyptian and Bantu: Uncovering Symbiotic Affinities and Relationships in Vocabulary, 68.

7 Fergus Sharman, Linguistic Ties between Ancient Egyptian and Bantu: Uncovering Symbiotic Affinities and Relationships in Vocabulary, 68.

8 Fergus Sharman, Linguistic Ties, 234.

9 George G. M. James, Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy, 1954. The Journal of Pan African Studies, 2009 eBook,134.


11 Visited 26th September 2020

12 The Encyclopedia Britannica 1911, Bantu languages – Encyclopedia

13 Ibid

14 Ibid

15 Fergus Sharman, Linguistic Ties, 13.

Even the bitterest fruit has sugar in it.

– Terry a O’Neal

The trees that are slow to grow bear the best fruit.

– Molière

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